Consultancy:Cash for Food Security Support in Somalia (CAFSS) Market Assessment in Somalia
The Danish Refugee Council (DRC) is a private, independent, humanitarian organization working on all aspects of the refugee cause in more than 30 countries throughout the world. The Danish Refugee Council (DRC) and its sister organization DDG has been providing relief, humanitarian community safety, and early recovery/development services in the Horn of Africa since 1997. The aim of DRC is to protect refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) against persecution and to promote durable solutions to the problems of forced migration, on the basis of humanitarian principles and human rights. DRC works in accordance with the UN Conventions on Refugees and the Code of Conduct for the ICRC and NGOs in Disaster Relief. The Danish Demining Group (DDG) aims to recreate a safe environment where people can live without the threat of landmines, unexploded ordinances and small arms and light weapons. These goals can be effectively advanced through cooperation and joint action with other organization as well as with integration of operations and programs with its sister organization, the DRC.
In Somalia, DRC is providing relief and development services using a human rights framework, aiming at supporting IDPs, returnees and host communities affected by conflict and natural disasters. Currently, the main sectoral programms include; Food Security and Livelihoods; NFI/Shelter; WASH and Infrastructure; Protection and Advocacy; Community-Driven Recovery and Safety; as well as Emergency Response on a case-by-case basis. The DRC Somalia program is guided by DRC HoA & Yemen 2016 Strategic Program Document which is aims at ensuring synergy and complementarity of all humanitarian interventions in the region.
Cash for Food Security Support in Somalia (CAFSS) Project
For more than two decades, Somalia has experienced violence, conflict and lawlessness, which has exacerbated poverty and hardship, undermined social and economic development, and made it challenging for the international community to address humanitarian and development priorities. Long-standing conflicts, drought and floods have disrupted livelihoods, and food security coping mechanisms, with repeated failure of crops, diminishing water resources and water quality, depleted livestock, rising food prices and deteriorating purchasing power. Today, about 6.2 million people — or are in need of life-saving or food assistance. More than 1.1 million people remain internally displaced and have been waiting for too long for durable solutions to change the course of their ordeal. An estimated 363,000 children under the age of 5 years are acutely malnourished, with 71, 000 of them facing death if not treated.
Recurrent shocks and poor access to services continue to require a strong focus on community resilience. As the majority of Somalis depend on subsistence farming and pastoralism for their livelihoods, seasonal shocks such as flooding and drought continue to cause critical humanitarian needs on a regular basis, with an impact on the already weak economy. Despite concerted efforts of the various humanitarian actors in the country, regional governments and the Somali Federal Government (SFG), some of the country’s most vulnerable populations remain in urgent need of humanitarian assistance and protection. This is the situation not only among those who reside in South/Central region, but there are thousands of affected populations that are food insecure and have limited access to basic needs in other parts of the country in Somaliland and Puntland.
The goal of the CAFSS project is to improve the food security of the targeted food insecure households through provision of conditional and unconditional cash transfers. The cash transfers are meant to increase the purchasing power for target households with limited access to food commodities that are readily available in the local markets. Cash transfers are deemed to be a dignified means of supporting beneficiaries as they allow them to make their own choices in terms of the types and quantities of food to purchase. DRC is targeting the extremely food insecure households and expects that a significant proportion of the cash will be spent on food with only a small proportion of the cash grant being spent on other essential items. The predictable cash transfers will ensure that the targeted households are able to meet their basic food needs when labor opportunities are few, limiting income and access to food. DRC estimates to reach around 32,826 beneficiaries through this project. 70% of the total target beneficiaries will be IDPs while the rest will be identified from the host communities.
2. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE MARKET ASSESSMENT
Markets are social arrangements that facilitate both physical and virtual exchange of goods, services and information among market actors. Market conceptualized as a system comprises a network of various market players; associated infrastructure, inputs and services- connected market chains; and rules and norms that shape market engagements. Markets are therefore critical for the poor not only as consumers and producers but also in terms of access to capital and market-based information. Markets also make an important contribution to dimensions of food security in relation to availability, access and stability. While at the most basic level markets involve the production, distribution and exchange of goods and services, well-functioning, healthy, and equitable markets have more nuanced qualities. These markets are inclusive of the most vulnerable actors including women, youth and persons with disabilities; resilient to possible shocks; and are responsive to consumers’ needs and preferences. This assessment will collect information on market dynamics in the face of the changing household economy and humanitarian environment to inform program design and planning of resilience and cash-based programs by DRC in Somalia.
- Provide an in-depth district-wise profile of food-insecure and vulnerable people, and their livelihoods.
- Provide an analysis of markets, their functioning and price trends in the targeted locations including an analysis of risk (hazards, natural disasters, economic shocks, etc) and their potential impact on the most vulnerable.
- Provide a differentiated analysis of the current situation of different populations sets (including IDPs, returnees, refugees, host communities or pastoralists/agro-pastoralists) with regards to food access, market opportunities, gaps, and vulnerabilities and challenges to be addressed.
- Analyse the impact of drought on food-security with reference to levels of vulnerability, numbers affected, where they live (locations), reasons for food-insecurity and asset deterioration.
- Identify value chains that have economic potential in both domestic and international markets, for further analysis. Are we able to accurately do this with the beneficiaries identified and selected?
- Provide a comprehensive analysis of the households livelihood situation and their capacity in relation to cash for assets and cash relief – including but not limited to an analysis of purchasing patterns, transport and distribution networks, agricultural inputs systems, market absorption capacity of vocational skills and other livelihood products.
- Assess urban and rural market drivers and their role in creating enabling conditions for the different livelihood groups, covering contextual factors and identifying the gaps to be addressed.
- Establish the appropriate assistance to reduce vulnerability and food insecurity taking into account political, socio-economic and agro-ecological context, food supplies, markets, livelihoods, coping strategies, nutrition, health, education, etc.
- Identify the root causes of food insecurity and vulnerability among populations affected.
- Provide assessment of the most preferred and feasible resource transfer modalities and mechanisms in the project target areas.
- Recommendations for programmatic approaches to address short term to medium priorities with regards to strengthening and expanding livelihood opportunities and systems and building resilience to withstand possible shocks.
3. SCOPE OF CONSULTANCY
The assessment will be conducted in selected areas in representative of ecological zones, livelihood zones and population typologies for Somalia and Somaliland guided by DRC’s food security and livelihoods programming scope. Specific locations will be selected from South-Central Zone (includes Mogadishu IDP Settlements, Baidoa, Dollow, Dhobley, Kismayo, Beletweyne, Luuq & Belethawa), Puntland; Somaliland (Lughaya, Gabiley, Buhoodle, Lasanod, Elafweyne and Erigavo districts) and Puntland (possible areas to include Garowe, Gardo, Baran, Lasqorey, Galkayo, Talex and Bosaso). Accessibility to some of these suggested districts, to non-Somalis, may be dependent upon the security situation at the time of the field visit, and travel must be pre-approved by the DRC Safety Advisors. Applicants must explain how they plan to access the places in their expressions of interest.
3.1 Key tasks with list of ‘key activities’, under each responsibility.
- Develop an Inception Report detailing among other things; the process and methodologies to be employed to achieve the objectives of this consultancy as stated above. It should include all assessment tools, and important time schedules for this exercise, and be presented to DRC for review and further inputs, before going to the field.
- Undertake desk review of the relevant secondary studies conducted by other partners, Cluster and DRC
- Design, develop, critique (with DRC team) and refine data collection tools.
- Conduct a comprehensive field based project evaluation [using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods]
- Carry out data collection, entry and analysis and write up the final evaluation report based on DRC inputs into the draft version.
It is envisioned that the assessment will be conducted using a combination of methodologies through primary and secondary data from reliable and relevant sources. The consultant will however, in consultation with DRC, design an appropriate and comprehensive methodology to conduct the assessment. The methodology should ensure an area-wise analysis and presentation of findings based on the objectives and by sectors stated above. The methodology may include but is not limited to review of existing information on infrastructures, collecting quantitative and qualitative data from returnees, government line ministries, service providers and community members etc.
3.3 Key deliverables/outputs
- Inception Report– The inception report will be a scoping exercise for the assessment and will include the proposed methodologies, data collection and reporting plans with draft data collection tools such as interview guides, the allocation of roles and responsibilities within the team, a timeframe with firm dates for deliverables, and the travel and logistical arrangements for the team. This is expected a maximum of four days after signing of the contract.
- Debriefing meetings / Feedback to Area Managers at field levels – The consultant will report his/her preliminary findings to the DRC’s Program Coordinators and DRC Monitoring and Evaluations Officer before leaving the field.
- Draft Report – A draft report, identifying key findings, conclusions, recommendations for the current and future operation, and take in consideration the outputs of the debriefing session. This will be reviewed by DRC for initial feedback.
- Final report – The final report (max 40 pages, excluding the preliminary pages and annexes), will contain a short executive summary (max 3 pages) and a main body of the report covering a description of the assessment methods and limitations, the background of humanitarian issues – specific to DRC’s sectors (for each of the districts), the findings, interventions, conclusions, lessons learned, clear recommendations (which includes assessment of risks/ humanitarian access). Recommendations should be specific, feasible, and in line with DRC’s strategic mandate.
The report should also contain appropriate appendices, including a copy of the ToR, cited resources or bibliography, a list of those interviewed and any other relevant materials. The final assessment report will be submitted one week after receipt of the consolidated feedback from DRC. The report should be Five (5) Hard-cover-bound copies and soft copy in two (4) CD- ROMs in pdf version.
4 DRC/DDG’s responsibilities
The consultant will report to the DRC Monitoring and Evaluation Manager and closely coordinate field activities with the Grants Coordinator and the Program Development and Quality Manager. The Regional Emergency Advisor may provide support on a case to case basis. DRC staff in the evaluation areas will provide necessary support to the team, as may be needed. The Consultant shall provide updates on progress as requested.
DRC will provide the following to the lead consultant:
- Transport to and from the field (as part of the overall contract)
- All necessary project documents as requested by the consultant
- Travel Insurance, where applicable
- Accommodation, including meals, for consultant (where necessary)
- Pay consultancy fees at a mutually agreed rate
The terms and conditions of service will follow DRC terms of consultancies. Payment will be done according to the finance procedures of DRC/DDG.
5 REPORTING ARRANGEMENTS
The consultant shall work under the direct supervision of DRC Somalia Monitoring and Evaluation Manager with administrative oversight of the Deputy Country Director, Somalia Program.
6 DURATION OF ASSIGNMENT
It is anticipated that the assessment will take 30 days from the date of signing the Contract, The Consultant/Consultancy firm should develop a feasible costed work plan/activity schedule covering an approximately 30 days and submit as integral part of the proposal for this consultancy.
7 EXPECTED PROFILE OF CONSULTANT
- Postgraduate degree in Economics, food security and livelihood related field.
- At least seven years of hands on experience in conducting assessments especially livelihoods, resilience and cash intervention programming.
- Strong background in monitoring and evaluation techniques.
- Experience in developing and implementing gender sensitive baseline methodologies in resilience and cash based interventions.
- Ability to analyze complex livelihood systems.
- Good knowledge and experience in survey design, implementation of surveys and statistical data analysis.
- Previous experience doing similar assignment with DRC is also an added advantage.
- Demonstrable experience in leading evaluations using Participatory Impact Assessment (PIA) approaches
- Strong analytical skills and ability to clearly synthesize and present findings, draw practical conclusions, make recommendations and to prepare well-written reports in a timely manner;
- Demonstrated experience in both quantitative and qualitative data collection and data analysis techniques, especially in emergency operations;
- Experience, knowledge and clear understanding of Somalia’s humanitarian context; culture and the Somali political dynamics.
- Readiness to travel to and across Somalia and independently conduct direct standard assessment activities.
Assessment and award of Consultancy
DRC will evaluate the proposals and award the assignment based on technical and financial feasibility. DRC reserves the right to accept or reject any proposal received without giving reasons and is not bound to accept the lowest or the highest bidder. Only those shortlisted will be contacted. Any subcontracting of the consultancy will not be accepted.
For general information about the Danish Refugee Council, please consult www.drc.dk.
8 TERMS & CONDITIONS
The consultant should be willing to work in the target areas of South Central Somalia, where security allows. The consultant may have his/her own team to work with and then they will entirely be under the jurisdiction of the consultant and at no time will DRC/DDG be held responsible for them.
Commitments: DRC/DDG has a Humanitarian Accountability Framework, outlining its global accountability committments. All staff are required to contribute to the achievement of this framework (http://www.DRC/DDG.dk/HAF.4265.0.html)
How to ApplyInterested applicants who meet the required profile are invited to submit an Expression of Interest (EoI) to DRC. The EoI should include:
- A suitability statement including CV of participating consultants with details of qualifications and experience.
- Technical proposal that summarizes understanding of the TOR, methodology and tools to be used.
- Work-plan clearly indicating the activity schedule.
- Financial proposal providing cost estimates and consultancy fees.
- Contacts of three organizations that have recently contracted you to carry out similar assignment.
- The foreseen work plan for the days. Daily consulting rate is negotiable, although will be commensurate to DRC consultancy terms and standards.
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